Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach
8th edition

By: Joseph T. DiPiro,
Robert L. Talbert,
Gary C. Yee,
Gary R. Matzke,
Barbara G. Wells,
L. Michael Posey

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Table of Contents


SECTION 1: Foundation Issues
Section Editor: L. Michael Posey

1. Pharmacoeconomics: Principles, Methods, and Applications
Lisa Sanchez Trask

2. Health Outcomes and Health-Related Quality of Life
Stephen Joel Coons

3. Health Literacy and Medication Use
Oralia V. Bazaldua and Sunil Kripalani

4. Cultural Competency
Jeri J. Sias, Amanda M. Loya, José O. Rivera, Arthur A. Islas, and Ulysses J. Urquidi

5. Principles and Practices of Medication Safety
Scott M. Mark, Jeffrey D. Little, Sarah E. Adkins, and Robert J. Weber

6. Evidence-Based Medicine
Elaine Chiquette and L. Michael Posey

7. Documentation of Pharmacy Services
George E. MacKinnon III and Neil J. MacKinnon

8. Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Larry A. Bauer

9. Pharmacogenetics
Larisa H. Cavallari and Y. W. Francis Lam

10. Pediatrics
Milap C. Nahata and Carol Taketomo

11. Geriatrics
Emily R. Hajjar, Shelly L. Gray, David R.P. Guay, Catherine I. Starner, Steven M. Handler, and Joseph T. Hanlon

12. Palliative Care
Jill Astolfi

13. Pharmacoepidemiology
Andy Stergachis, Thomas K. Hazlet, and Denise Boudreau

14. Clinical Toxicology
Peter A. Chyka

15. Emergency Preparedness: Identification and Management of Biologic Exposures
Colleen M. Terriff, Jason E. Brouillard, Lisa T. Costanigro, and Jessica S. Oftebro

16. Emergency Preparedness: Identification and Management of Chemical and Radiologic Exposures

Greene Shepherd and Richard B. Schwartz


SECTION 2: Cardiovascular Disorders
Section Editor: Robert L. Talbert

17. Cardiovascular Testing
Richard A. Lange and L. David Hillis

18. Cardiac Arrest
Jeffrey F. Barletta and Jeffrey L. Wilt

19. Hypertension
Joseph J. Saseen and Eric J. Maclaughlin

20. Systolic Heart Failure
Robert B. Parker and Larisa H. Cavallari

21. Diastolic Heart Failure and the Cardiomyopathies
Jean M. Nappi and Robert L. Page II

22. Acute Decompensated Heart Failure
Jo E. Rodgers and Craig R. Lee

23. Ischemic Heart Disease
Robert L. Talbert

24. Acute Coronary Syndromes
Sarah A. Spinler and Simon De Denus

25. The Arrhythmias
Cynthia A. Sanoski and Jerry L. Bauman

26. Venous Thromboembolism
Daniel M. Witt, Edith A. Nutescu, and Stuart T. Haines

27. Stroke
Susan C. Fagan and David C. Hess

28. Dyslipidemia
Robert L. Talbert

29. Peripheral Arterial Disease
Barbara J. Hoeben and Robert L. Talbert

30. Use of Vasopressors and Inotropes in the Pharmacotherapy of Shock
Robert Maclaren, Maria I. Rudis, and Joseph F. Dasta

31. Hypovolemic Shock
Brian L. Erstad


SECTION 3: Respiratory Disorders
Section Editor: Robert L. Talbert

32. Introduction to Pulmonary Function Testing
Jay I. Peters and Stephanie M. Levine

33. Asthma
H. William Kelly and Christine A. Sorkness

34. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Dennis M. Williams and Sharya V. Bourdet

35. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Rebecca Moote, Rebecca L. Attridge, and Deborah J. Levine

36. Drug-Induced Pulmonary Disease
Hengameh H. Raissy, Michelle Harkins, and Patricia L. Marshik

37. Cystic Fibrosis
Chanin C. Wright and Yolanda Y. Vera


SECTION 4: Gastrointestinal Disorders
Section Editor: Joseph T. DiPiro

38. Evaluation of the Gastrointestinal Tract
Keith M. Olsen and Grant F. Hutchins

39. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
Dianne B. Williams and Robert R. Schade

40. Peptic Ulcer Disease
Rosemary R. Berardi and Randolph V. Fugit

41. Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Brian A. Hemstreet

42. Nausea and Vomiting
Cecily V. DiPiro and Robert J. Ignoffo

43. Diarrhea, Constipation, and Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Patricia H. Powell and Virginia H. Fleming

44. Portal Hypertension and Cirrhosis
Julie M. Sease

45. Drug-Induced Liver Disease
William R. Kirchain and Rondall E. Allen

46. Pancreatitis
Scott Bolesta and Patricia A. Montgomery

47. Viral Hepatitis
Paulina Deming

48. Drug Therapy Individualization in Patients with Hepatic Disease and Genetic Alterations in Drug Metabolizing Activity
Y. W. Francis Lam

49. Celiac Disease
Robert A. Mangione and Priti N. Patel


SECTION 5: Renal Disorders
Section Editor: Gary R. Matzke

50. Clinical Assessment of Kidney Function
Thomas C. Dowling

51. Acute Kidney Injury
William Dager and Jenana Halilovic

52. Chronic Kidney Disease: Progression-Modifying Therapies
Vimal K. Derebail, Abhijit V. Kshirsagar, and Melanie S. Joy

53. Chronic Kidney Disease: Management of Complications
Joanna Q. Hudson

54. Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis
Kevin M. Sowinski and Mariann D. Churchwell

55. Drug-Induced Kidney Disease
Thomas D. Nolin and Jonathan Himmelfarb

56. Glomerulonephritis
Alan H. Lau

57. Drug Therapy Individualization for Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Gary R. Matzke

58. Disorders of Sodium and Water Homeostasis
James D. Coyle and Gary R. Matzke

59. Disorders of Calcium and Phosphorus Homeostasis
Amy Barton Pai

60. Disorders of Potassium and Magnesium Homeostasis
Donald F. Brophy and Jane Frumin

61. Acid-Base Disorders
John W. Devlin and Gary R. Matzke


SECTION 6: Neurologic Disorders
Section Editor: Barbara G. Wells

62. Evaluation of Neurologic Illness
Susan C. Fagan and Fenwick T. Nichols

63. Alzheimer’s Disease
Patricia W. Slattum, Russell H. Swerdlow, and Angela Massey Hill

64. Multiple Sclerosis
Jacquelyn L. Bainbridge and John R. Corboy

65. Epilepsy
Susan J. Rogers and Jose E. Cavazos

66. Status Epilepticus
Stephanie J. Phelps, Collin A. Hovinga, and James W. Wheless

67. Acute Management of the Brain Injury Patient
Bradley A. Boucher and Shelly D. Timmons

68. Parkinson’s Disease
Jack J. Chen, Merlin V. Nelson, and David M. Swope

69. Pain Management
Terry J. Baumann, Jennifer M. Strickland, and Chris M. Herndon

70. Headache Disorders
Deborah S. Minor


SECTION 7: Psychiatric Disorders
Section Editor: Barbara G. Wells

71. Evaluation of Psychiatric Illness
Mark E. Schneiderhan, Leigh Anne Nelson, and Stuart Munro

72. Childhood Disorders
Julie A. Dopheide and Stephen R. Pliszka

73. Eating Disorders
Steven C. Stoner

74. Substance-Related Disorders: Overview and Depressants, Stimulants, and Hallucinogens
Paul L. Doering

75. Substance-Related Disorders: Alcohol, Nicotine, and Caffeine
Paul L. Doering and Robin Moorman Li

76. Schizophrenia
M. Lynn Crismon, Tami R. Argo, and Peter F. Buckley

77. Major Depressive Disorder
Christian J. Teter, Judith C. Kando, and Barbara G. Wells

78. Bipolar Disorder
Shannon J. Drayton

79. Anxiety Disorders I: Generalized Anxiety, Panic, and Social Anxiety Disorders
Sarah T. Melton and Cynthia K. Kirkwood

80. Anxiety Disorders II: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Cynthia K. Kirkwood, Lisa B. Phipps, and Barbara G. Wells

81. Sleep Disorders
John M. Dopp and Bradley G. Phillips

82. Disorders Associated with Intellectual Disabilities
Nancy Brahm, Jerry Mckee, and Douglas Stewart


SECTION 8: Endocrinologic Disorders
Section Editor: Robert L. Talbert

83. Diabetes Mellitus
Curtis L. Triplitt and Charles A. Reasner

84. Thyroid Disorders
Jacqueline Jonklaas and Robert L. Talbert

85. Adrenal Gland Disorders
Steven M. Smith and John G. Gums

86. Pituitary Gland Disorders
Amy Heck Sheehan, Jack A. Yanovski, and Karim Anton Calis


SECTION 9: Gynecologic and Obstetric Disorders
Section Editor: Barbara G. Wells

87. Pregnancy and Lactation: Therapeutic Considerations
Kristina E. Ward and Barbara M. O’Brien

88. Contraception
Sarah P. Shrader, Kelly R. Ragucci, and Vanessa A. Diaz

89. Menstruation-Related Disorders
Elena M. Umland, Lara Carson Weinstein, and Edward M. Buchanan

90. Endometriosis
Deborah A. Sturpe

91. Hormone Therapy in Women
Sophia N. Kalantaridou, Devra K. Dang, Susan R. Davis, and Karim Anton Calis


SECTION 10: Urologic Disorders
Section Editor: L. Michael Posey

92. Erectile Dysfunction
Mary Lee

93. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Mary Lee

94. Urinary Incontinence
Eric S. Rovner, Jean Wyman, Thomas Lackner, and David R.P. Guay


SECTION 11: Immunologic Disorders
Section Editor: Gary C. Yee

95. Function and Evaluation of the Immune System
Philip D. Hall, Nicole Weimert Pilch, and Daniel H. Atchley

96. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Other Collagen-Vascular Disorders
Jeffrey C. Delafuente and Kimberly A. Cappuzzo

97. Allergic and Pseudoallergic Drug Reactions
Lynne M. Sylvia and Joseph T. DiPiro

98. Solid-Organ Transplantation
Heather J. Johnson and Kristine S. Schonder


SECTION 12: Rheumatologic Disorders
Section Editor: L. Michael Posey

99. Osteoporosis and Other Metabolic Bone Diseases
Mary Beth O’Connell and Sheryl F. Vondracek

100. Rheumatoid Arthritis
Arthur A. Schuna

101. Osteoarthritis
Lucinda M. Buys and Mary Elizabeth Elliott

102. Gout and Hyperuricemia
Michael E. Ernst and Elizabeth C. Clark


SECTION 13: Ophthalmic and Otolaryngological Disorders
Section Editor: L. Michael Posey

103. Glaucoma
Richard G. Fiscella, Timothy S. Lesar, and Deepak P. Edward

104. Allergic Rhinitis
J. Russell May and Philip H. Smith


SECTION 14: Dermatologic Disorders
Section Editor: L. Michael Posey

106. Acne Vulgaris
Debra J. Sibbald

107. Psoriasis
Rebecca M. Law and Wayne P. Gulliver

108. Atopic Dermatitis
Rebecca M. Law and Po Gin Kwa


SECTION 15: Hematologic Disorders
Section Editor: Gary C. Yee

109. Anemias
Kristen Cook, Beata A. Ineck, and William L. Lyons

110. Coagulation Disorders
Betsy Bickert Poon, Char Witmer, and Jane Pruemer

111. Sickle Cell Disease
C. Y. Jennifer Chan and Reginald Moore

112. Drug-Induced Hematologic Disorders
Christine N. Hansen and Amy F. Rosenberg


SECTION 16: Infectious Diseases
Section Editor: Joseph T. DiPiro

113. Laboratory Tests to Direct Atimicrobial Pharmacotherapy
Michael J. Rybak, Jeffrey R. Aeschlimann, and Kerry L. Laplante

114. Antimicrobial Regimen Selection
David S. Burgess

115. Central Nervous System Infections
Isaac F. Mitropoulos, Elizabeth D. Hermsen, and John C. Rotschafer

116. Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
Martha G. Blackford, Mark L. Glover, and Michael D. Reed

117. Upper Respiratory Tract Infections
Christopher Frei, Bradi Frei, and George Zhanel

118. Influenza
Jessica C. Njoku and Elizabeth D. Hermsen

119. Skin and Soft-Tissue Infections
Douglas N. Fish, Susan L. Pendland, and Larry H. Danziger

120. Infective Endocarditis
Angie Veverka and Michael A. Crouch

121. Tuberculosis
Charles A. Peloquin and Rocsanna Namdar

122. Gastrointestinal Infections and Enterotoxigenic Poisonings
Steven Martin and Rose Jung

123. Intraabdominal Infections
Joseph T. DiPiro and Thomas R. Howdieshell

124. Parasitic Diseases
J. V. Anandan

125. Urinary Tract Infections and Prostatitis
Elizabeth A. Coyle and Randall A. Prince

126. Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Leroy C. Knodel

127. Bone and Joint Infections
Edward P. Armstrong and Allan D. Friedman

128. Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock
S. Lena Kang-Birken and Karla Killgore-Smith

129. Superficial Fungal Infections
Thomas E. R. Brown, Linda D. Dresser, and Thomas W. F. Chin

130. Invasive Fungal Infections
Peggy L. Carver

131. Infections in Immunocompromised Patients
Douglas N. Fish

132. Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Surgery
Salmaan Kanji

133. Vaccines, Toxoids, and Other Immunobiologics
Mary S. Hayney

134. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
Peter L. Anderson, Thomas N. Kakuda, and Courtney V. Fletcher


SECTION 17: Oncologic Disorders
Section Editor: Gary C. Yee

135. Cancer Treatment and Chemotherapy
Patrick J. Medina and Stacy S. Shord

136. Breast Cancer
Laura Boehnke Michaud, Chad M. Barnett, and Francisco J. Esteva

137. Lung Cancer
Deborah A. Frieze and Val R. Adams

138. Colorectal Cancer
Lisa E. Davis, Weijing Sun, and Patrick J. Medina

139. Prostate Cancer
LeAnn B. Norris and Jill M. Kolesar

140. Lymphomas
Alexandre Chan and Gary C. Yee

141. Ovarian Cancer
Judith A. Smith and Judith K. Wolf

142. Acute Leukemias
Betsy Bickert Poon and Dianne M. Brundage

143. Chronic Leukemias
Christopher A. Fausel and Patrick J. Kiel

144. Multiple Myeloma
Timothy R. McGuire and Casey B. Williams

145. Myelodysplastic Syndromes
Julianna A. Burzynski and Tracey Walsh-Chocolaad

146. Renal Cell Carcinoma
Christine M. Walko, Ninh M. La-Beck, and Mark D. Walsh

147. Melanoma
Cindy L. O’Bryant and Jamie C. Poust


SECTION 18: Nutritional Disorders
Section Editor: Gary R. Matzke

149. Assessment of Nutrition Status, and Nutrition Requirements
Katherine Hammond Chessman and Vanessa J. Kumpf

150. Medication Administration Considerations with Specialized Nutrition Support
Roland N. Dickerson and Gordon S. Sacks

151. Parenteral Nutrition
Todd W. Mattox and Catherine M. Crill

152. Enteral Nutrition
Vanessa J. Kumpf and Katherine Hammond Chessman

153. Nutritional Considerations in Major Organ Failure
Brian M. Hodges and Mark DeLegge

154. Obesity
Judy T. Chen, Amy Heck Sheehan, Jack A. Yanovski, and Karim Anton Calis

148. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Janelle B. Perkins and Gary C. Yee

Glossary
Index